A SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF HENRIK IBSEN’S THE PILLARS OF THE COMMUNITY

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION



A. Background of the study.
Literature, like society, is a totality. Literature is any writing, which has the power to move the reader heart or to stir their mention (Wiyono, 970:1). The expression of the author in his writing who creates beautiful ideas and language attract people to read literary works with different motivation. Each literary is a living whole in which can only be understood in terms of its constituent parts. A literary works is a significant dynamic stricter, totality of thought and experience. As a product of a constantly changing social word, a literary work is seen as dynamic rather than static entities and significant for embodying the crucial valves and events of the times when the work appears.
A work of literature is not an accumulation of devices but an organized whole, made up of factors of varying importance (Fokkema, 1977:20). The term society should be interpreted broadly in the sense that may include various aspects such as social historical aspect, cultural religious aspect, economic aspect, and so on. Some are perplexed that literature should have an uncertain extent as this should not be surprising. Produced by divers societies, variously conceived and valued at different times, and never known except in small part, literature inevitably elicits disparate ideas of itself (Alastar, 982: 2). Literature can be defined here as a constituent part of culture (Fokkema, 1997: 169).
The result is that society gives a lot of contribution toward their behavior, civilization and creation. The work of art a human creation; it is a medium for the author to express their wit and language. Work of art, which is often called as literature, becomes an imitation of the author emotional process or social reality.
Literature becomes a social institution that is made or crated by an author who is a member of the society. Therefore, literature cannot be separated from the society and the study of literature should be relative to the society. The term society should be interpreted broadly in the sense that is may include various aspect; social, historical, cultural, religious, economics, and political ones (Subhan, 2003:37).
From a literary work people can also get information like the description of certain place, the term of sciences, the style of life of each class of society and other information, which the writer wishes to share with the reader. It means that people will get knowledge about culture from the literary work. Literary work is an art sociological or contextual in nature because in the process of certain an author combine a number of events, situations or conditions, and future aspiration with his past impression ( image ) there presented his world view, experience, and norms which came from with its uniqueness ( Subhan, 2003: 41).
Work of literature; a novel, novelette, short story, or drama can be reflection of the writer social life. An author as member of specific society lives and relates to all people around him. His creative process cannot be separated from his involvement in the society where have live.
A drama is considered to be favorite for the reader because the reader can find drama in anywhere; reading drama is really pleasant and joyful activity. The reader can do it any where like in a car, such a bus, bad room. On event in waiting room and so on. An invitation to understand society in a disciplined way for people who are naturally interested in the events that engage people’s ultimate beliefs, their moments of tragedy and grandeur and ecstasy, but who are also fascinated by the comment place, the everyday. Social reality has many layers of meaning. The discovery of each new layer changes the perceptions of the whole the fascination of sociology lies in the fact that its perspective makes us see in a new light the very world in which we have lived all our lives (Berger & Luckmam, 963: 1- 24).
The sociological study is based on the assumption that literary works is the reflection of society. Through literary work, an author expresses the problem of life. The society determines the values of literary work which live in certain time. Drama is the product of the author condition of society itself (Sumardjo, 982: 11). Sumardjo also says that the study of society is a part of sociology. In other words sociology is the branch of science that explains about the relationship between one people to another.
The writer chooses the sociological analysis. It is based on the society that is reflected by the pillar of the community written by Henrik Ibsen during that period. There is a reciprocal relationship between a literary works is used to examine the connection between a literary work and the real world. The extrinsic elements especially sociological analysis in this research tells about the social condition of the
Norwegian at that time. Those are important because it is based on societies in the drama The Pillar of the Community.


B. Identification and Limitation of the Problem
Studying literature has many large fields that can be scope, because literature is not only teach in one pat on science, but also concludes many problem I many sciences. The writer does not want to make this thesis become blur because its large conscious problem. So, in this case, she limits the analysis a sociological of Norwegian and the influences of author biography.
This statement supported by Ian, Faruk in pengantar Sosiologi Sastra (1994:4) according to them, there some kinds of approach that can used to examine the social problem, such as:
1. The social problem, such as:
a. How did the author get his income?
b. How far did the author consider his job as a profession?
c. What society was concerned by the author?

2. Literature as a reflection of the society:
a. How far did the literature reflected the society when the literary work was
written?
b. How far did personality of the author influence the description of the
society that will be expressed?
c. How far did the literary genre use by the author can be considered to represent the whole society?

3. The social function of the literary:
a. How far the literature can be functioned as a tool to change the society?
b. How far the two above can be sintered?

C. Formulation of the Study
Based on the identification and limitation of the problem above, the formulation of the problem can be:
1. How far does the influence of the author biography toward the drama?
2. How far does Henrik Ibsen describes the sociological of Norwegian in the drama?

D. Objective of the Study
The objective of the research:
1. To know how far the influences of the author biography toward the drama.
2. To know how far Henrik Ibsen describes the sociological of Norwegian in the drama



E. The Significance of the Study
Academically, the findings of the study are expected to give the contribution of comprehending on analyzing of the drama. The research can give some information from the social background of Henrik Ibsen relate in literary work and also give some knowledge dealing with reciprocal relationship between the author, the literary work born among the society and it is expected to give some contribution to development research in literary appreciation among the students of Ahmad Dahlan University, particularly in relation with the drama


CHAPTHER II

THEORETICAL FRAME WORK

The theory of literature is very important in this study. It becomes references to support the writer’s statement. It can also give some information of evidences to help writer analyze. This study presents some theories which have relationship with the topic. They are the understanding of the drama or play the extrinsic element theories of the drama or play, and social classes or stratification theories.
A. The Understanding Drama or Play
The kinds of literary work are usually divided into three genres, i. e. prose, poetry and drama. Drama is different from any other literary works. One of the differences is that drama is created to be performed on the stage, because the word drama itself comes from the Greek verb darn meaning to act or to perform (Morris, 1964: 476). Meanwhile the other literary works are only designed for the printed page or printed reading.
Walley (1950: 3) says that drama is not only a form of literature but also an art of the theater, whereas most forms of literature is designed for printed page and for printed reading, and the drama is designed primarily for stage and public exhibition.
It means that at least the drama should have play, actor, stage and audience. We can say that if there are only the actors without stage, they can not be called a drama; on the contrary, if there is a play without some actors on the stage, it may be called a reading drama:
“Plays are meant to be performed, but we can enjoy reading them and developing pictures in our minds of the characters as they move about. We can even imagine actors, actresses, and people. We know” playing the part” of those we are reading about, and we can ourselves read the parts aloud” (Reaske and Knott, 1975: 59).
Some people mention that drama is also a play. Basically there is a little difference between both of them. It is that a play is a document whereas a drama is the performance of that play.

B. The Sociological of Literature
An author of literary work usually tries to show many things in his work, for instance social phenomenon, his experiences, his criticism to the society where he lives, etc. One should focus to study literary work on what he or she wants to be described. In relation to studying a literary work, there are several approaches that can be applied.
Wellek and Warren (1956: 73- 139) state that there are two approaches in studying literature, the extrinsic approach and the intrinsic approach. The extrinsic approach describes the elements of literature from the outside of literary work. Meanwhile the intrinsic approach describes the elements of literature from the inside of the literary works. Truly the extrinsic approach is the same as expressive, mimetic and pragmatic approaches; meanwhile the intrinsic approach is the same as the objective approach.
Abrams (1976) in teeuw (1984: 50) explains the following points:
1. Expressive approach is an approach that considers a literary works an expression of telling, thought and experience of the writer. This approach focuses on the writer’s role.
2. Mimetic approach is an approach that considers literature as an imitation of the universe.
3. Pragmatic approach is a approach focusing on reader. An approach that regards work as a medium to achieves a certain objective.
4. Objective approach is an approach that focuses on the work itself, which reveals intrinsic elements which build up a structure.
According to the background of the study in the previous chapter of this thesis the writer would like to analyze the pillar of the community sociological by describing the extrinsic elements of the play.
In relation to the approaches above, the writer would like to describe extrinsic elements of the play by applying the mimetic approach because is focuses on the study of the life such as; human being , human society, place of life and so on, while the work of art consist of many values of like: like the experience of human being, the condition of certain society, etc. what is meant by the relationship the work of art and universe is that the work of art lifts up many problems appearing in the world. It can be criticism or a depiction of life.
That the plays the pillar of the community consist of social problems, and society is part of the universe become the reason why the writer applies mimetic approach.
A sociological study is one of the applications of mimetic approach in analyzing a literary work. The object of sociology study in society is analyzed from the point of view of relevance among human being and the process caused from the relevance in society (Soekanto, 1990: 25).
Swingwood (972) in Faruk (1994: 1) state that sociology as a scientific and objective study about man in the society, institution, and social function tries to answer how the society is enabled, how it behaves, and how the society survives.
Sociology of literature is a kind of approach that considers the social aspects in a literary work (Damono, 1978: 4). Truly, the idea of sociology of literature is a unity of a literary work, author, and the society background. Here, we can also say that literature will represent life of social reality in life that was written by the author at certain time and place. It can be a social institution to describe all of events in the society by sing language as a medium.
“Literature is a social institution, using its medium language a social creation. Such traditional literary the devices as symbolisms and meter are social in their very nature. They are conventions and norms, which cold have a reason only in society. Furthermore, literature represents life and life is a large measure a social reality. The poet himself is a member of society. Possessed of a specific social status, receives some degree of recognition and reward: he addresses and audiences, however hypothetical” (Wellek and Warren, 1962:94).
Based on the idea above, learning the literary work means learning a social life. According to Semi (1990: 53 – 58). There are some cases to notice in relation to literature.
1. Literature shows the specific phenomenon if it is looked it’s creating and society that consumes them.
2. A literary work shows the nature, so that it can be reflection of the certain time and place.
3. Beside the background of socio culture which influences a literary work, it is literary work in a esthetic values.
4. There is a close relationship between the intrinsic element and extrinsic element.
5. Literature reflect a condition of socio culture, in contrast, it is as a criticism of socio culture.
6. To understand and to give the meaning of literary work, each individual is different, because of the differences of interest, ability, knowledge, and background of socio culture.

C. Social Classes
In a society, if it is observed by one, there are several groups. This condition is discriminated based on the certain measuring and ways. It wills become what we call social stratifications, social classes or level. It is a fact that a society always consists of several classes or levels. They are higher classes, middle classes and lower classes.
Everybody may have different opinions to define the social stratifications or social classes. Sorokin (1959) in Dhamiri et al. (2002:90) says that social stratification is people or society distinctions into classes hierarchically. Meanwhile Horton and Chester (1984) translated by Ram (1990: 7) state that social classes, basically is the way of life. Sorokin (1979) in Soekanto (1990:122) says that the system of stratification is a state and common characteristic in every regular life in the society. Sorokin also state social stratifications are a permanent characteristic of any organized social groups (Sorokin 1959 Dhohiri et al, 2002: 90).
The social stratifications or social classes can be determined by using many measuring and ways. For examples, as it is written by Nasution (1983: 29- 30).that social stratification can be followed by three methods as follows:
1. Objective method: the stratification is determined based on the objective criteria, such as, the income, education level and the kind of vocation or profession.
2. Subjective method: in this method a social group is formulated by the opinion of society members toward them selves in the position hierarchy of the society.
3. Reputation method: in this method a social group is formulated by how member of society locate everyone in stratification of the society.
Class can be determined by economic situation, market situation, status, and politically party (Giddens, 1993: 218).
An ancient philosopher, Aristoteles (384- 322 B.C.) in Sitores (2003: 136) explains that in every country. There are three elements, namely: those who are very rich, those who are poor, and those are in between them.
In Marxism theory the term social classes are used to show a contradiction relationship between the land holder of the factory owner and the laborers. Karl Marx, Marxism’s father has used historical methods and philosophy to build theory of social changing, which shows the development of the society to reach the condition of social justice. According to Marx as long as the society is still divided into many classes, the wealth and strength would be assembled in the powerful cases. Law, philosophy, religion, and custom are reflection of economic statue of certain class (Marx 1942 in Worsley 1992: 177- 178).
Based on all of the opinions above, social system will be able to grow from the seed of every valuable thing, such as money, land, authority, power, descent, education, knowledge and experiences. The basis of social cases which grow depends on the characteristic of the society, for example social cases in the agrarian society are different from that in the industrial one. Social classes is not a permanent thing because it can be changed by the changing of situation in that society and the social stratification or social classes usually happen in the complex society only.


D. The Biography of the Author
Henrik Johan Ibsen (1828 –1906) is an out sanding figure in the development of European drama since he realistically presented modern drama in his plays. Una Ellis – Fermore (1959: 8) says that Ibsen is the first Norwegian of modern times to lead the world in any of the art; the effect of his works has much influenced the European theatre and drama, and through them the European thought. It was his social problem plays, which has carried his fame throughout the world although it has evoked loud protest among his countrymen.
The main concern of his social plays is primarily focused on society, i.e. exploring the relation between the individual and his social and personal surrounding. Ibsen has critized the society thought the characters in his drama. His social critism has made him considered as immoral, as a cynic and a pessimist since he fearlessly attacked the past forms and convention of society which were commonly held to be saced, or at least beyond critism. The following are his major social plays: The Pillar of the Community (1877), A Doll’s House (1879), Ghost (1881), An Enemy of the People (1883), The Wild Duck (1885), Romersholm (1887), Hedda Gabler (1890), and The Master Builder (1892).
The Pillar of the Community is the English translated version from the original title Samfundets stotter which was translated by Una – Ellis Fermore. It was finished in 1887 after two years of unremitting labour and several rewritings. The drama realistically presents a sociological phenomenon which can be found in any society. It portrays a small town life of one of the Norwegian coast – towns around the nineteenth century with its internal social, political and economical problems of the society at that time. The play describes some changes in the society caused by the coming of the industrialization. The changes can be seen from the introduction of new machines in the shipping company and the building of the railway system. The result coming from the industrial development has also changed the way of life of community and also their way of thinking. The new machines made many people lost their work. New industrial capitalists arise. There is movement from skilled to unskilled labour as a technological change. The changes can also be seen in the society’s perception about gender. The gender issues involved the position and role of men and women in the age when the play was written. There was a consideration that men have higher position than women do but since the coming of the industrial development, it seemed that the position of men and women underwent movement, as ‘it was influenced by the social condition outside Norway, particularly American.
The play also reflects some moral issues in the social life. Through the characters of drama, Ibsen tries to attack the deceptions and corruption that were the basis for such a provincial society. It probes the conflict within the individual between the desire for happiness and the demands of conscience, so it becomes the cause of the emerging of many hypocrites in social life. People at that time were urged to compete to get more money from the business or to get the highest position in the community, however, they do not pay attention to whether they get it in a dishonest way. They even do not pay attention to morality and humanity.


E. Norwegian Society During 19th Century
Norway, the “northern way” occupies the western half of the Scandinavian peninsula of northern Europe. Lying on the northern skirt of the Europe Continent and thus avoiding the characteristics of a geographic crossroads, Norway has maintained a great homogeneity among its people and their way of life. With much of its inland population almost completely isolated, Norway has been able to preserve much of its old folk culture. On the other hand, from the seafarers and traders the Norwegians have always received fresh cultural stimuli from abroad. A number of Norwegians have made important contribution in return, notably the playwright Henrik Ibsen.
The population of Norway is unevenly distributed throughout the country. Norway’s population grew more rapidly during the nineteenth century than any other period of its history. The population rose from 883,000 in 1801 to 2,240,000 in 1900.Whereas the urban population was only 8.8 percent in 1800 it had reached 28 percent by 1900. Since industrialization began in the 1870’s a general migration to urban areas has occurred. Emigration hardly effected this distribution because it proved to be a national rather than regional phenomenon. From 1875, the population of eastern and northern Norway showed a marked increase as these areas attracted most of internal migration. After Ireland, Norway had the highest relative emigration of all European countries. From 1840 to 1914 about 750,000 people immigrated, especially to American Middle West (Leiren, 1988: 466b).
Organized education in Norway began in the Middle Ages shortly after the establishment of a separate archbishopric in 1152. The goal of the education to train a clergy – continued after the Lutheran Reformation. But in the 1736, when confirmation was made obligatory, the concept of a more broadly educated populace was first expressed. Economic, political and social realities, however kept education the monopoly of the wealthy until increased political democracy in the nineteenth century brought new demands for broadening educational opportunities. In 1860 the first law making school attendance compulsory was passed, and in 1889 a comprehensive educational system requiring seven years of schooling between the ages of 7 and 14 was established. Norwegian schools are divided into three levels: basic schools (grunnskole); secondary schools (videregaende skole); the noncompulsory university schools and vocational schools; and universities and colleges (universiteter, hoyskoler) (Leiren, 1988: 469).
The lower levels of education are decentralized with local government authorities responsible for the contraction and operation of basic school. Expenditures theoretically are covered by municipal budget, but central government contribution for each categorized hour of instruction can amount from 25% to 85% (Leiren, 1988:469).Secondary school are run by the count (fylke) governments, but ultimate authority rests with the ministry of church and education . In the nineteenth century, Nikolai Grundtvig of Denmark articulated the concept of the folk high school. Norway’s folk high school offer general education to young and old alike without any set examinations. The University of Oslo Founded was founded in 1811 and opened in 1813. It is largest institution of higher learning in Norway in the nineteenth century.
Norway had a same picture of an ideal family and home as the rest of European people in the nineteenth century. Inside the home, life was enclosed in a hierarchical and ritualistic system under which the husband and father was absolute master. His wife was called his help – mate but was unquestionably his servant as well. Her task was to keel the household functioning smoothly and harmoniously. She maintained the accounts and directed the activities of the servants – usually two or three woman. She was responsible for the moral educational of her children. Much of her day was spent in the company of other woman from similar households. Women were not expected to improve their minds. They were not expected to be the intellectual companion of their husbands. Rather, they were encouraged to be dabblers; education for them usually consists of little more beyond reading and writing, a smattering of arithmetic, geography, history, and a foreign language, embellished with lessons in drawing, painting in watercolour,singing, or piano – playing.
The Norwegian way of life does not differ greatly from life in Europe generally, probably because of the spectacular scenery. However, Norwegians seem more drawn to the outdoors for reaction in both writer and summer than are most continental Europeans. Winter sports have a long historical tradition in Norway. The sagas tell competition on skis and skates, and from their early history Norwegians have been internationality competitive.











CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD

Research method is a very important thing in doing research, because it can help the researcher to make a strategy how to find, collect, developed verity and analyze the data systematically. At the end, the researcher is going to find out the answer to the problems stated I his study.
Hadi (1984:3) state that methodology is a science discussing the ways or strategies to develop, and verity the correctness of the knowledge by using research method.
In this chapter, the writer will explain subject as well as subject of the study and the steps to analyze Henrik Ibsen’s play the Pillar of the Community sociologically, that is; technique of collecting the data, instrument of the research, and technique of analyzing the data.
A. Subject and Object of the study
The subject of this is the play the Pillar of the Community that was written by a productive Norwegian dramatist named Henrik Ibsen’s. This play was published for the first time in 1977 by using Norwegian as its language. All the data in the play the Pillar of the Community are considered as the object of the study.

B. Technique of Collecting the Data

This study is called library research. It can be done by carefully and critically reading the drama or play that was written Henrik Ibsen’s. The contents of the play are treated as primary data especially both of the clues of the influences of Henrik Ibsen’s socio cultural background toward the play The Pillar of the Community and the social condition depictions of Norwegian society in late 19th in the play. The results of collecting the data by carefully and critically are written down into pieces of papers to be classified and verified. Them they are already to be analyzed.
To analyze the play The Pillar of the Community sociologically, the writer uses some related books, articles, journals, etc about Henrik Ibsen’s as references and also as the secondary data to support the analysis logically and systematically, historical background of Norwegian society as well.
C. Instruments of the Study
The researcher should use the certain instrument of the study to gain the data which are needed in doing his research. It depends on the field of the research and technique I collecting data.
Because this study is library research of literary work, the writer of this thesis only uses the pens and places of papers as the instrument to record the data.
D. Technique of Analyzing the Data
After the data are collected, they have been already to be analyzed. There are four kinds of research methods. They are historical, descriptive, expose facto, and experiment. (Sudjana, 1987: 32).
In this study, the writer uses descriptive qualitative analysis to describe the social aspect of Henrik Ibsen’s play The Pillar of the Community, namely: the influence of the socio cultural background of the author and the social condition of Norwegian society in late 19th century reflected by Henrik Ibsen’s play The Pillar of the Community.
In analyzing the play The Pillar of the Community, the writer undertakes some processes by breaking up the play into several parts. The first process, he breaks up the story of the play that has symbols or clues of the influences of the socio cultural background of the author and Norwegian society depiction in the play or drama. The second process, he interprets and describes both of depiction of Norwegian society and symbols or clues by relating them to the exactly socio cultural background of the author and Norwegian in late 19th century by using Abrams’ mimetic theory and Nasution’s social stratification theory.

CHAPTER IV

DISCUSSION


In Discussion, the writers will try to analyze several things, such as: the setting, character and characterization, the influent of author biography toward the drama and the condition of Norwegian social conflict as reflected in the drama, but firstly, the writer will give a synopsis of the drama The Pillar of the Community.
A. Synopsis of the drama
This play takes place in Bernick’s house, in one of the smaller Norwegian coast towns. The drama begins with the talk of several women, lead by Mrs. Bernicks, and sitting in garden room. They are all busy with needlework. For a while the coming of the shipwright, Aune, who was looking for Krap, interrupted the talk. In the separate room, they were arguing about the use of the new machines and methods in the shipyard owned by Bernick’s shipping firm. These women, accompanied by Rorlund, the assistant teacher in the State school, are talking about the life of society of their contrasted with those outside their small town. They thanked themselves for living in such a pure society. Hilmar Tonnesen, Mr.Bernick’s cousin, comes by and talks about the meeting held by Karsten Bernick with three local capitalists. He said that the meeting is about the business of the railway. Bernick, as a consul of the town, has been decided not to have a railway a year ago but then the issue has come up again. After having the meeting, he reconsiders to run a branch – line in the town. He thinks about the possibilities for industrial development if the plan is realized. However, Rorlund objects to the plan because the town will get bad influences from the outside. Bernick convinces them they all will be able to sustain their moral foundation from the corrupt world outside.
The return of Lona Hessel and Johan Tonnesen from American is very surprising. Karsten is very anxious and angry about their return, sine he, at the moment, needs a good name to get the support from the people for his big plan to build the railway. Their presence will remind the people about the scandal in his family. The story began when he had an affair with an actress of dramatic club, Mrs. Dorf and they had an illegitimate child. Thus, to protect the reputation of his family, he sacrificed Johan by throwing the fault on him. Thinking about his sister who has fallen in love with Karsten and wanting to get away from the town, he willingly did what Karsten asked him to do. From the conversation between Karsten and Lona, Karsten admits that he had married Betty because of money’s sake. The firm of his family was ruined and Betty had a large amount of money of her own. His reputation was risked when Johan intended to marry Dina Dorf. The public rejected Johan’s intention since they thought that she was he own daughter. He was afraid that Johan would tell his secret that Dina was actually his own daughter. Meanwhile, he had his own problem with his firm. His workmen refused to work with the new machines, so that the repaired ship could not be ready in the time requested. After some arguments, Aune finally promised to finish the ship according to what he had asked.
From Krap’s investigation, Karsten knew that Aune had not yet repaired the ship, as it should be. But, he told Krap to keep quiet about it, for it would influence the good impression he had made to the press and the public. This drama comes to its climax when Karsten is told that this only son, Olaf, runs away to America on an imperfectly repaired ship ‘’ The Indiana Girl’’. He is very anxious and frustrated, after what he has done for his son’s better life in the future. But when his wife has successfully got Olaf back home, his anxiety was relived and his hope returned.
In the end Karsten admits his dishonesty in front of the public, confessing that it was he who had bought the property that used to build the railway and that he was the guilty man fifteen years ago and not Johan. He was also very grateful to Lona for helping him to stand on his own feet. He says that women are the pillars of the community. Lona further adds that the spirits of truth and freedom are the pillars of the community.

B. Intrinsic Analysis
In this part the researches will describe about the elements of the drama, which explain about the elements that developed the work of art from inside of the drama. She will explain a part of intrinsic elements that are setting and characterization. The researcher wants to know about the relation of the setting and very character with the social condition when the Drama when the author lives.
The main action of the Drama is the interactions between opinions, ideas and attitudes, which weaves and advances the plot of the Drama.

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