PHILOSOPHY OF ISLAMIC SCIENCE SYED M.NAQUIB Al-Attas

The 20th century often cited many observers as the century of Islam. In addition to the political and social movements, the rise is also happening in the realm of thought and scholarship. In the political and social, for example, the resurrection is characterized among others by the Islamic revolution in Iran, armed resistance against Soviet occupation in Afghanistan, as well as the birth of various movements such as al-Ikhwan al-Moslem and Hizb al-Tahrir in Egypt, with a figure- leaders such as Khomeini, al-Mawdudi, Hasan al-Banna, and Sayyid Qutb. While in the realm of thought and science, since the second half of the 20th century took place what is known as the "Islamization of Knowledge" or "Islamization of Science", by Syed Syed M. Naquib Naquib al-Attas, Isma'il Raji al-Faruqi, Seyyed Hossein Nasr and Ziauddin Sardar as the who carried.
As a reaction to the backwardness of Muslims in the face of Western modernization, Islamization of Knowledge (hereinafter to be abbreviated IP) instead of something completely new. Already since the end of the 19th century, when it began direct contact between Islamic countries and Western colonial powers, began to germinate awareness about the importance of such reforms is voiced by Muhammad Iqbal, Jamaluddin al-Afghani, Muhammad Abduh and Rashid Rida. The difference is, if these thinkers emphasizes the social and political reform as a solution, the IP bearer further assume that the root of the problem people are in the realm of knowledge and education, and therefore the solution must also be sought in the region. This awareness culminated in organizing the World Congress on the first Islamic Education in Makkah in 1977 and continued the second Congress in 1980 in Islamabad. Since that's popping up various institutions to realize the idea of ​​IP. Among these is the International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT) in Washington on the initiative of al-Faruqi, International Islamic University of Malaysia (IIUM) and the International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization (ISTAC) in Kuala Lumpur, thanks to the efforts Syed M. Naquib al-Attas. [1]
Related to the above facts, the exploration of ideas Syed M. Naquib al-Attas, and al-Faruqi become very important, because they berdualah IP which is a lighter movement. Even the two main institutional anchor of IP, namely IIIT and ISTAC, built and headed the first time by both of them.
However, this paper will only discuss the idea Syed M. Naquib al-Attas, especially his views about the philosophy of science are typical of Islam, for the following reasons. First, the idea originated from Syed M. IP Naquib al-Attas, although al-Faruqi who popularized it. Al-Faruqi himself much affected by Syed M. Naquib al-Attas in the formulation of its IP agenda. [2] Second, while Syed M. Naquib al-Attas to formulate his ideas about IP fundamentally with explaining its philosophical foundation, al-Faruqi jump directly to the formulation of work plans and operational measures to Islamize knowledge. For this reason, the idea of ​​al-Faruqi often become the target of criticism because many of the fundamental things that have not been completely explained, in part perhaps because he died suddenly in a tragic murder. Thus, when about to discuss the philosophy of science that underlies the concept of the IP project, we must turn to the works of Syed M. Naquib al-Attas because we did not encounter such cases in detail in the writings of al-Faruqi. [3]

B. Problem formulation
From the description above background, it can be prepared a formulation of the problem which is a question being answered in this study. Explicitly it can be formulated as follows:
How conception Syed M. Naquib Al-Attas on Islamic philosophy of science?
C. The purpose and usefulness of research
The research was carried out with the following main objectives:
1. To find out the conception of thought Syed M. Naquib al-Islam over the filsafsat science.
2. To find a characteristic that distinguishes the building philosophy of Islamic science and the philosophy of Western science.
3. To determine the contribution of the Islamic philosophy of science to scientific development.
The purpose of this study are:
1. In an effort to describe and analyze the philosophical thinking of Islamic sciences according to Syed M. Naquib al-Attas.
2. As the contribution of discourse for similar research in particular, and generally for the development of Islamic thought. Academically, this research is expected to be used to complete graduation requirements at the Department of Aqeedah S1-Philosophy, Faculty Ushuluddin, Sunan Kalijaga State University of Yogyakarta.
D. Reader Review
To understand the thinking Syed M. Naquib al-Attas on the philosophy of Islamic Sciences, this research must be supported primary and secondary sources. Primary sources are the writings of Syed M. Naquib al-Attas itself, whereas secondary sources are complementary, which is written by others that talk about the thinking of al-Attas.
As far as the exploration of the writer, the author managed to find some thesis related to the thinking of al-Attas, among them:
1. Research conducted by Abdul Wahid in a thesis entitled "The Islamization of Science and Its Effect on Islamic Education in Indonesia". Studies of thinking Syed M. Naquib Al-Attas in this thesis describes how the process of Islamization of knowledge is very influential on the existence of Islamic education in Indonesia, which was loaded with a variety of issues, ranging from the paradigmatic problem, a crisis of institutional values, and so forth. In addition to digging Islamization of science that are triggered al-Attas on Islamic education in the context of Indonesia, also described the contribution of other figures of thought about the Islamization of science.
2. Moh. Ali Muchlis provides a review of educational thinking of al-Attas, in a thesis titled "Comparative Study of Educational Thought of al-Ghazali and Syed M. Naquib al-Attas'. Sides that are emphasized in this thesis is a comparative educational thinking between the two figures, namely mengkomparasikan concept of Islamic education, science, human beings, the purpose of Islamic education and Islamic education system, and do not examine in depth the epistemology of Islam, especially about the philosophy of Islamic science.
3. Research conducted Ainurrofiq with the title "Construction Thought Syed M. Naquib al-Attas'. There, al-Attas Reviewed thinking in general with the concentration of the discussion on the typology of his thinking.
4. Syafriadi Daulay in a thesis entitled "The Concept of Islamic Education: A study of thinking Syed M. Naquib al-Attas' gives a long description of the concept of Islamic Education by Syed M. Naquib al-Attas, including the important concept of tarbiyah, study groups, ta'dib, the definition of Islam, human, scientific, educational objectives of Islam, and other forms of Islamic education system.
Thus, it can be said that the previous studies discussed the idea of ​​Islamization of science in relation to Islamic education and the construction of thought in general. In contrast to these researchers, the study of this thesis focuses on the views Syed M. Naquib al-Attas on the philosophy of Islamic science that will include discussion about the foundation of ontology, epistemology, and axiology of science.

E. Research Methods
In a qualitative research philosophy, research methods are very dependent on the formal object and the object of research material. Therefore, the relevant research methods are also determined by the type and model of the research to be done. [4]
Material object of this study was thinking Syed M. Naquib al-Attas, being formal object is the philosophy of science. Because this type of research is the study of philosophical thinking of a figure, then the method used is the library research (literature study is qualitative-descriptive) and will take methodical steps as follows:
1. Historical methods, which include:
a. Biographical reconstruction. Patterns of thought can not be released to the social environment, culture, and development of philosophical thought at the time. Therefore, this method is applied to describe the life history and the history of the development of thinking through the historical biography of the philosopher philosophers. Dengana know the biography of the philosopher, then the research can describe patterns of thought and social environment, culture, and development of thinking that influence these philosophers.
b. Descriptive historical. Applied in order to describe philosophical concepts, philosophical ideologies that influence it, as well as the possibility of philosophical thinking was influential on the ideology or the other stream.
2. Interpretation method, applied to the data collection time to show the meaning, expressing, and said the essence of philosophical thinking objectively. If the source of verbal data written in a foreign language, then the process of interpretation is done by translating the analysis, namely the transfer of meaning from foreign languages ​​into Indonesian.
3. Hermeneutic method, was used to capture the essential meaning according to context, so that thought can be understood in accordance with the present.

F. Systematics Discussion
Discussion of problems in this thesis will be presented in the chapters, and as a whole is divided into five chapters, each of which specified in sub-chapter in a systematic and mutually related to each other.
The first chapter contains an introduction. In the introduction, there are background issues that researchers explain why this study is considered important. Once the background trouble, for mengkonsistensikan a problem, the next is the formulation of the problem. Followed by a review of the literature, research methods, and concludes with a discussion systematics.
The second chapter contains a biography and scientific thinking Syed M. Naquib al-Attas in general. About the biographies, the researchers only briefly describe the most important thing and take it in order not to deviate from the theme of the studies in this thesis.
The third chapter talks about the philosophy of science in general and its association with Islam which will be presented through the opinion of some leaders of the study.
The fourth chapter contains the philosophical thinking of Islamic Studies Syed M. Naquib al-Attas, both in the ontology, epistemology, and axiology of science.
The fifth chapter contains the conclusions and recommendations of researchers find and ask for scientific research and enrichment. Conclusion is written to appeal to the essence of the problem and the solution of a discussion. While the suggestions are things that are recommended for improving the results of research that require further attention. []





[1] Mohamed Aslam Haneef, A Critical Survey of Islamization of Knowledge (Kuala Lumpur: International Islamic University Malaysia, 2005), pp.. 2-6; Rosnani Hashim, "The idea of ​​Islamization of Contemporary Science: History, Development, and Direction goal", Islamia, Th. No. II. 6, July-September 2005, pp.. 32-3.
[2] Rosnani Hashim, ibid., Pp.. 32-33.; Daud, Wan Mohd Nor Wan Daud, 2003, Philosophy and Practice of Islamic Education Syed M. Syed M. Naquib Naquib al-Attas, trans. from English by Hamid Fahmy et al. (New York: Mizan, 2003),. P.. 392-399.
[3] Mohamed Aslam Haneef, A Critical Survey of Islamization, p.. 36, 43-48; Rosnani Hashim, ibid., Pp.. 40, 44. Hamid, M. Fahmy, Ismail Arifin, and Amel Alexander, 2003, "Introduction to Translation" in David, Wan Mohd Nor Wan, ibid., Hlm.16-7
[4] Kaelan, Qualitative Research Methods Field of Philosophy (London: Paradigm, 2005), pp.. 243.

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