This article discusses the Islamic view of religious pluralism. Islam considers religious pluralism as a fact that 'given', which is willed by God. Therefore religious plurality may not be denied because it would deny it is to deny life itself, that is needed is to understand it properly. From that standpoint, religious pluralism must be faced with a positive and optimistic, tolerant of all forms of difference and do my best in it's maturity dull. It thus has a theological-referential in both the Koran and the Sunnah of the Prophet, and the historical reality of Islam, which has created a harmonious coexistence among different religions who live in the midst of the Muslim community. Of Islam with regard themselves uphold the values ​​of pluralism is not just a humanitarian task in a sociological perspective, anthropological, but it really is part of kemusliman somebody. At the end of the article, the authors indicated the idea of ​​pro-existence had existed in the normativity of Islamic doctrine and historicity.

Keywords: Religious Pluralism, Islam, Ahlu l-Book

Human religious phenomena in the contemporary discourse of religious studies can be approached from various angles approach. Religion is no longer just from the standpoint of the teachings of revelation, though normativity of this phenomenon until whenever is characteristic rather than the existing religions, but religion is also approached from the angle and the historicity of interpretation is closely related to followers of a religion, individuals and groups, to religious teachings he followed it. [1] normativity teachings of a religion, in general, are built through a doctrinal-theological approach and absolute, religious historicity of human being explored through a variety of social science point of approach is multi-religious and inter-disciplinary, either through a historical approach , philosophical, psychological, sociological, cultural and anthropological. Tipologisasi normativity and historicity had still to be open (open ended) there are other possibilities that may come in the second category.
Relations between the two approaches was always there in like a two-part setting of the coins are 'inseparable' but expressly 'can be distinguished'; relationship between two entities together in a thorough understanding, compact and sturdy. Core religious and morality remain and put forward in understanding and explaining the variety of human religious phenomena, because the authenticity of a decision or religious thought will be obtained when he clearly has a referential source of sacred revelation which is basically the authority of God. Indeed, a thought has the feel of religious (religious) when he is taken in terms of derivatives spirit of the sacred sources of that religion. [2]
But when the meaning or the essence of that religion and morality into the wi-layah historicity of human life, then he automatically can not escape from the bondage of space and time. For when religion is in the middle of the pe-hug and then he became something institutional, interpretive, and there his mission, then the religion into the phenomena of history, psychology, politics, anthropology and group phenomena. [3] As with all traditions existing religious, then religious principles must constantly be reinterpreted. The result is a-dalah malleability of ideas and divergence in space and time. That way the relationship between a religious doctrine and historicity will feel alive, fresh and open-ended.

Normative References Religious Pluralism: Islamic Perspective
A discussion of Islam and the orientation of other social problems can not be released from an axiom the idea that Islam is the doctrine of God with a set of values ​​that it carries. The values ​​derived from the 'something' that transendent but he is entirely oriented towards concrete things for human life to provide the basic assumptions morale, motivation and direction for the creation of a decent life, humane but also transcendent. [4]
In the study of Islamic studies or Islamic studies, that whoever has an interest to conduct a study of Islam in pure and in-depth, both normative and historical Islam, can not escape from reality early Islamic period, namely the Qur'an and the seventh century. [ 5] Al-Quran is a descriptive-normative mirror over what and how the Muslims have looked at the world and life as well as important forms to be observed in it. And the seventh century AD, which is a community early in the time of the Prophet Saw.dan under the caliph of four as an ideal paradigm for any study that is always referred to by Muslims as well as from where they form their own understanding of neighbor age. [6]
A good religion is classified as a religion of revelation or not-if we agree tipologisasi thus, can not be separated from social influence, the situation and its origins are complex. [7] Thus Islam was born and developed to bring features from the place where he was born. Historically Islam since its birth brought a pluralistic mode of teaching. Because, in addition he was born and grew up in the middle of the social conditions of a pluralistic multi-ethnic and belief, are actually carrying the Islamic theological pluralism of ideas either tribe, race, color, race and even religion. If the Bible says that God created human beings with all the consequences of varieties in order to know each other know, [8] the plurality in Islam become a necessity and the law of God and the evidence of His power. [9]
The real holy Word on teaching about the importance to treat the difference and plurality wisely. Namely to know each other and learn on the difference and plurality, for complementary and reinforcing, mutual understanding and did not see it from the perspective of high and low human. For high or low a person is not determined by the reality of difference and plurality, but by the levels of piety. [10] The plurality is in fact in Islam to be an idea or understand, namely pluralism. [11] That is a value system that sees a positive and optimistic pluralism by accepting it as fact that can not be denied, then competing in the good in that a plurality of conditions. [12] Pluralism is because it is Islam according to his doctrine brought pluralistic ideas, and re-daksi QS al-Hujurat paragraph 13 as diunkgapkan M. Quraish Shihab, is one of the factors emerging and flourishing of plurality. [13]
"For every people among you, we give the rules and the way that light. Had God willed you would have made him one people (alone), but God tests you against the gift to you. The race-lombalah in virtue". Quotes al-Quran al-Maidah letter of verse 48 it can be said as well as understanding the core issues of religious pluralism in the view of Islam as normative.
Contradictory statements on assumptions about the reality of the world from this one, under which people who are in it to live in a social fact that varieties are divided into groups, each of the groups that have different life goals, "For every group has purposes, that's where he directs ". [14] Because the plurality's a Kenis-confidence, each group is expected to contribute in fact to be able to accept this diversity, tolerance to each other by giving freedom and greater opportunities for everyone to live their lives according to path beliefs respectively. What is needed in a plural society is, so that each group competing in a pluralistic life with a healthy and correct way.
Our world is one, but pluralistic. Understanding of the world on this one requires a more realistic view of religion that religious pluralism is a fact that is a unique global as well as necessity. It is not of this world may actually be one or a single (unitary) absolutely, [15] in the absence of the elements of difference in it. Because instead of unity and togetherness and it can be achieved in different circumstances, unity in diversity, to borrow a phrase Nurcholish Madjid, or agree in disagreement, if we borrow the term HA Mukti Ali. Instead of Scripture implied the existence of a society that seemingly united but their hearts are divided. [16]
Globalization of information and its influence has penetrated into all corners of the world. One phrase that is worth considering in the context of the world so that the religious life in this transparent world should have the right vision about their religious and other communities with a positive awareness of the existence of plurality. Each community should understand and seriously consider self-awareness of each group and all the difference. [17]
Religious pluralism is one of the vision brought by the Qur'an and has historically been translated at the level of praxis by the early followers of the Prophet Saw.dan. Pluralistas positive religion is sunnatullah, provision of God that will not change, wa li lan tajida sunnatillah i tabdila. Theological basis for that truth can be traced explicitly with reference to the words of God in the Holy Koran. That, God created man with the various consequences of diversity of gender, race, nation, [18] in which a plurality of essentially is one of the signs of His power, [19] that if he wished to make one, surely mankind would be exist in a uniform shape. [20] Therefore, all of them there is nothing impossible for Him, [21] but God wanted humans to test all of them because they always disagree. [22]
Research and further interpretation of the content over the sacred texts of the Koran as a whole regarding religious pluralism, normatively al-Quran gives three different response models, which is acknowledged, give a full critique and teach tolerance. First, recognition of the Koran against religions other than Islam to be one part of the fon-tie faith of Islam. [23] That, believe in the revelations of God before the coming of Muhammad Saw.menjadi characteristics for the the cautious. This means that the recognition of religions receiving revelations are part of the principal of faith, even if recognition was placed within the framework of 'unity of religions'. [24] Therefore, the core-convey the teachings of God to the Prophet Saw.adalah equal to core teachings conveyed by him to all the Prophets. Revelations in the Scriptures the Torah, the Psalms, the Gospel and to the Prophet Ibrahim shuhuf are all derived from the same God. So the substance of the message that the revelations regarding the extent primarily the teachings and basic principles, will not contradict each other. Hence seseungguhnya faiths in God is a single race. [25]
Second, in addition to recognition of the reality of al-Quran, religious pluralism of religion, Islam also gives criticism and correction of religions opinion upstream Jews and Christians as an effort to call people back on the truth of the same. Recognition of other religions is not a confirmation or a full confession, but provides limited pe-criticism and confession, the extent of the elements that are in line with the teachings of Islam. [26] Religions of pre-Islamic, especially Jews and Christians, he acknowledges as an-teseden Islamic religion which culminated in the development process sent his Prophet Muhammad. [27] criticized this model means that no matter how early or there is a difference of 'irregularities' significant, tahrif, and consciously rejecting the message of Prophet Muhammad SAW . In this case instead of one of the raison d'etre is to straighten out the presence of Islamic religions straight line before, and also to straighten out and complete these religions. [28] Religion Islam as God's final message brought by Prophet Muhammad SAW . is a continuation, revision, and refinement. [29]
Third, even in the theological al-Quran aktulaitas criticized sharply against the Bible, but at the level of sociological level al-Quran teaches tolerance and full religious freedom for those on the Scripture Jews and Christians. Freedom of religion and the actualization of their rituals and teachings of this tolerance can be traced both doctrinal truth and the facts of history and has been running for so long. [30]
Hence, with the words clear and unequivocal al-Quran gives the freedom for every human being fully in matters of religion and religiosity, "laa ikraha fi ad-din ', meaning: there is no compulsion to embrace Islam. For, behold it was clear to mankind which way is right and wrong way. [31] For this reason, because the truth is from the Lord, He is invited to all mankind without exception to be faithful or not faithful to him even once. [32] Because as the best of his creations that, humans have the ability to distinguish between right and wrong are free to follow the truth that comes from God or deny it. [33] Because The real freedom is associated with the idea of ​​nature; inborn disposition that created by God as a universal medium of instruction is very important. [34]
Against the Prophet Muhammad, because the ability of the universal and the teachings he brought that is not tainted, he is the "cover all the Apostles', the last prophet, [35] al-Quran represents the culmination of all revelations and offers the perfect way to spiritual needs. The uniqueness of the message of the Koran are somehow not block all the followers of earlier religions had the grace of God. Concerning him the Koran explicitly explained that for those who believe in the oneness of God and the Hereafter (days resurrected after death), his books, they will not fear and grief, and for their reward with their Lord . [36]
From there though the Prophet as a warner and his glad tidings and convey Islam as a way of salvation, God warned that he is not forcing a man to believe in him. Since God was that there is nothing impossible for Him, not impose it. And if He willed all men will become one people only, or, believing all to Him. [37] In this verse Allah is prohibited and rebuked the Prophet when he was eager to 'force' people to accept and follow his teaching, "And if thy Lord willed, surely all human beings on earth have faith entirely. So if you (want to) make humans so that they become believers? ".
The result, of the existence of other religions, Islam was not menafikannya. Recognition of the existence and its teachings, even though it was criticized, Islam gives a very remarkable identity that is explicitly confirmed by the Koran that those who believe (Muslims), Jews, Christian and Sabians who believe! to God and the Last Day and do good, they will get reward from Him, no fear and sadness. [38] Recognition of identity and religious pluralism, the indication is strengthened by the Islamic ban on insulting the gods of other religions to keep their feelings and sense of along with them. [39]
So in Islam doctrinally asserted if the climate and maintain an atmosphere of religious freedom and respect for plurality of religions and other beliefs regardless of its form, is not only an act of necessity for the livelihood of a pluralistic society, which is definitely in it there are elements of difference. But more than that, for a Muslim it is a religion that contains the values ​​of the Deity and humanity as well, which is perennial. Therefore, the defense of religious freedom in order to avoid a form of coercion pemelukan religion and recognizes religious pluralism, respect and appreciate a part of kemusliman person. [40] this statement was implicitly stated in the Bible the Koran which symbolized the attitude necessary for maintain houses of worship in it called the Lord's name like monasteries, churches, synagogues and mosques. [41]
Thus the Quran as God's last message gives an amazing description and evidence is so clear about ideas diusungnya ideas among the plurality of religions or religious pluralism. The uniqueness and distinctive al-Quran is not only lies in its textuality which explicitly mentions religions other than Islam in it, though indeed he is the only scripture that calls religions other than religion that brought him, but lies in the recognition, identification, protection houses of worship of religious Jews and Christians as well as Sabiah. In fact, inclusivism eschatological explicitly stated in the Koran. [42]
Islamic perspective, normatively, very positive towards the recognition of pluralism and freedom of religion is, in itself creates a sense inclusivism among the early Muslims, because of the attitude of pluralism and inclusivism are two entities that are interrelated and inseparable. They not only appreciate and let the other religions that still exist, were 'co-eksisntensi', but also actively try to get these religions still exist, was "pro-existence ', as in the necessity to do justice to them, not means insulting god as well as keeping a house of worship.

Religious Pluralism: Islamic History Approach
Islamic pluralism within the framework of historicity translated into empirical reality the first time in the Charter of Medina by the Prophet Saw.untuk Medina residents as a whole and the second is his Aelia Mitsaq Umar bin Khattab to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, after the city was politically dominated by Muslims.
Medina Charter sets out principles of pluralism, a historical document that guarantees freedom of religion by emphasizing cooperation as tightly as possible and in order to maintain common security. No doubt when the prophet Saw.dalam brilliant idea to make plat-form together in a logical constitution is inspired from the principle of pluralism in Islam.
Saw.bersabda Prophet, "Whoever interfere dhimmis (non-Muslim minorities) then he has been disturbing me". This expression shows how the Prophet a great sense of responsibility towards the Prophet's existence and survival of non-Muslims who are under the political authority in all its forms. Although the new city of Medina, the Prophet and the Muslims are the majority and independent people, new people and actually have been formed. In Medina, the 'dominance' of the Muslims, religiously pluralist society have actually been formed and has been a general awareness of the first generation of Muslims.
Constitution of Medina is a historical description of Islam when in fact do not know all the doings of totalitarianism and coercion, but the accommodative character so prominent. The Islamic community was not a majority plural exclusive, but it was actually very inclusive, tolerant and understanding the reality of religious pluralism within the meaning and praxis. With the charter, it has put an end to the attitude of exclusivism respective tribes in Medina. Medina has been known as common, is a pluralist urban society, multi-ethnic, and multi-religious culture. It has long lived in the city Khadraj tribes Aus and there in the arena of hostility, Jews and Christians who live in ghetto-ghetto in physical barriers, grouped in a high fence to form their own perkampungannya.
In talking about this Islamic pluralism, charter Medina is historical evidence from the very beginning when the Prophet Saw.benar really intends to build a cosmopolitan society that was inclusive and pluralist. Charter has become an ideal foundation to build Medina and juridical evidence if he maintains the existence of other religions. He also gives an overview of living together in a pluralistic spirit, willingness to live peacefully together bound by a treaty commitment to defend each other.
From the above facts Robert N. Bellah, mention if the constitution is formulated Prophet Saw.sebagai a constitution that truly modern. Modern is not just for his time, but also for the space and time right now, in modern times we are now. This fact, added Bellah, is by no means an ideological fabrication of a-historical, but it really happened and historical. [43]
But it certainly requires evidence and historical facts which really shows, if indeed true that early Islamic society is a pluralist modern society, inclusive participation and optimize all citizens? This question is important in order to resolved the answers can be verified or otherwise. The claim that the early Islamic community is pluralist and inclusive and Medina Charter is a constitution that is modern of course this is not mere rhetoric, but its truth can be seen in the historical fact that even documented in writing to the present. And sociologically, that the leadership of the Prophet which is then forwarded by the first four caliphs, he, in a pluralist Medina never happens again what is called a race riot or racial riot that before Islam came often occur where previous Medina became a city scene of racial conflict. Fourth class, ethnicity and religion were subsequently live together side by side Muslims, bound in the sense of responsibility to maintain security together. [44]
Just at this point needs to be noted when ousting the Jews from Medina was not a dictator because the majority of the action or other forms of suppression and oppression of minorities, nor because of racial unrest, but because of inconsistencies and their betrayal of the Charter of Medina by providing assistance to people who are hostile to Muslims directly or indirectly, such as spying, providing reinforcements and all other forms of violation of the constitution.
Betrayal of the Jews is actually a sad heart of the Prophet and pose a serious dilemma for him, a phenomenon so esoteric that often eluded the observer of the history of the Prophet. How the Prophet Saw.yang on the one hand is often taught his people to accept the Jewish people as a spiritual neighbor of the same religious tradition of Abraham (Abrahamic Religions), but on the one hand the reality of the Jews of Medina against the Prophet. Jews of Khaibar, for example, an oasis of prosperity, helping ten thousand troops to the people of Mecca in Medina stormed. Overcome this psychological dilemma, draw conclusions when the Prophet among the Jews there are two distinct groups, namely a genuine and that can not be trusted. [45] So that dealt with firmly by the Prophet and the Muslims as a logical consequence of the breach of the constitution of Medina It is those of the second group. As a result of two Jewish tribes, the tribe Qaynuqa and Nadzir, exiled from Medina. [46]
One other important events that demonstrate the implementation of Islamic pluralism is the acceptance of the Prophet Saw.terhadap Najran Christian delegation, that is, when a group of envoys arrival time of the Prophet who numbered about 60 people. They are believers in Ktholik Masikh led by Abdul al-Ayhan and their bishop named Abu Haritsa ibn 'Al-qama. They stayed several days in Medina and accommodated in the Prophet's Mosque and some in the homes of the Companions of the Prophet .. Over the past few days that's going dialogue between them.
One day the head of their delegation is asking leave to leave the Prophet's Mosque Prophet for a while. When the Prophet inquired about what they need, so had to leave the house of worship Nabawi mosque. They answer the curiosity of the Prophet., That the adherents of the Catholic faith that came out was about to perform their religious worship. What was done was surprised the students of history and religious studies both past and present, he forbade them to leave it Nabawi mosque just to perform religious worship. Furthermore, the Prophet Saw.mempersilahkan they do worship in the mosque Nabawi. This event is narrated by a historian of Islam in the book of Ibn Ishak sirah (85-151 H). [47]
Bernard Lewis, a Jewish orientalist, explain if this Islamic pluralism in the middle ages is one of the characters that distinguish between Islam and Europe. In the middle ages of Europe not only small in terms of size, but also narrow-minded in the mindset, almost without the slightest tolerance for religion and religious thought even in the differences that exist in their own bodies. It is different with Islam, continued Lewis, who has the diversity and composition has the characteristics of a plural, the Islamic community just happy to be receiving significant differences among them in daily practice and even in matters of religious belief though. Here the non-Muslim communities can enjoy this tolerance.
Muslims coexist peacefully, polite and willing to live with people of other religions are free to do and take care of their worship. The same tolerance, added Lewis, not found in the Christian world, except after the outbreak of 'war of religion'. For eight centuries-Lewis so-called Islamic rule in the Iberian Peninsula, the religions of Christianity and Judaism can survive and tend to experience significant growth. However, the opposite phenomenon occurs when the peninsula was conquered and fell into the hands of Christians. This conquest is fatal for Muslims and Jews as a religious conversion pakasa done by the new rulers. [48]

People of the Book: Basis for Pro-existence of Islam
Thus, already is a provision for certain that Islam doctrinally even appreciate the identity of religions other than himself. Even in the first place historically, when performing his first call of Islam in Makkah, the Prophet Saw.merasa sure if his message is a continuation or return of the treatise is also the generation of prophets and 'religions' them. [49] He is the successor to the minutes of their and at the same time as the closing of the chain of prophethood (nubuwwah).
Understanding the Prophet Muhammad. as the Seal of the Prophets and His Apostles as well as the above are indications of the element of continuity and completion. Provisions that Muslims must believe in all prophets without distinction of one another-QS 2:136, clearly implies an element of continuity religions of God and so it also contains elements common fundamental values. [50] And if Prophet and the Muslims are commanded to believe in all prophets, then all humans must also acknowledge his prophethood. Because, in fact denies the Prophet Muhammad prophets deny the deed itself and thus to change the prophetic lineage. [51]
One of the unique scriptures of the Koran is inclusive willingness to name and give an appreciation of other religions. There is a distinctive Islamic teachings in this context is about the owners of the Scriptures known as the Book Ahlu. People of the Book is a concept that gives specific recognition to the adherents of other religions who have the Scriptures. But this recognition did not means-as has been described in three different responses to religious pluralism-Islam views all religions are equal, [52] a matter that is impossible given the fact that there are religions that time and now it is different in many this principle. Therefore, the views of religious pluralism certainly did not look the same religion, but the forms of any religion is seen as a particular privilege to be cherished. [53]
Pebedaan things that very principle is not an obstacle to the religion of Islam in providing recognition of the right of each to be, co-existence, with the freedom of their religion fully. More than her 'co-existence', Islam is also actively instead was "pro-existence '. This indication can be seen from the willingness and commands of the Koran to remain fair to other religions on the basis of mutual respect peace agreements, [54] recognition of the freedom of religion, [55] with her invite all men to accept Islam or no.
[56] And the peak of the pro-existence of Islam as a doctrine of this pluralism is a command to all Muslims to maintain houses of worship such as monasteries, churches and synagogues are in it called the names of God, [57] and the order was followed with an invitation to Ahlu Book together towards the meeting point or sentence sawa (common ground) to not associate God. [58]
Islamic pluralism that gave birth to consciousness of the existence of the above pro-rooted in the view of a Muslim is that Islam as a universal religion to bring goodness to the universe, rahmatan lil'alamin. Stereotypical statement is no exaggeration when it was born of consciousness of religious attitudes are uniquely different from people of other religions, except after the advent of modern times with his ideology, with modern economic and political support, not because of religious ideas that were there. The attitude of Islam is a unique example of tolerance, the expression of religious freedom, openness, fairness is all that is part of religious duty and the historical fact that not only purely ideological fabrication. This form of pro-existence among them because thanks to the Book Ahlu concept in Islam.
The concept of the Book is also having an impact in the development of culture and the glorious Islamic civilization as a result cosmopolitism based layout is open and tolerant society. So this concept is one of the milestones for the spirit of cosmopolitism was a very well known, with a view and a positive orientation mondial-appreciative. So that the Muslims in the classical age really succeeded in creating science truly universal dimension with the support of all parties that exist. [59]

Observing normative pluralism and historical approach, so Islam has a rich repertory as well as a strong foothold in responding to issues of religious pluralism. Understanding the perspective of religious pluralism of Islamic normativity and practical consequences of it all, give a description that upholds the values ​​of religious pluralism is not just a part of one's duty but also a humanitarian dimension of kemuslimanan and is a religious duty that has a value of Godhead at once. While historically, Islam from the beginning is in the midst of social and religious conditions of a pluralistic, so that in its development, he became the religion most appreciate the values ​​of pluralism and religious pluralism.
Thus the Muslims actually have a reference that can be applied in the context of modern life, especially for religious life in Indonesia is pluralistic, both from the texts of the Koran and experience the glorious history of religious pluralism. So should they become the people of the Middle Ages, [60] that no longer will feel the dilemma if his life should be in contact with other religions. Other religions have to be a partner instead of living in the face of humanity with the same problems as poverty, juvenile delinquency, conflict 'religion', and other joint problems. In the Bible of the Muslims are the best people, [61] if it can appear in history as a people are advanced, humanist and role model for other people. For, if not, God will indeed replace it with other people. [62]

Allaah 'bi al-Shawab nature.

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[1] See M. Amin Abdullah, Religious Studies. Normativity or historicity? (London: Student Reader, 1999), p. V.
[2] See Nurchalish Madjid, Continuity and Creativity in the Message Understanding Religion, in Nurcholish Madjid et al, Transformation of Islamic Values ​​Towards Civil Society, (eds) M. Akkas and M. Hasan Amin Noer (New York: MediaCita Publishers, 2000), h.198
[3] See for example. Komaruddin Hidayat, "Indonesia is Our Home", Voice of Muhammadiyah, N0. 18 Th. 87th (16 to 30 September 2002), t.h.
[4] Ahmad Syafii Maarif, the Koran, and Limbo History of Social Reality (A Reflection) (New York: Library Publishers, 1985), pp. 50.
[5] Hans Kung, "A Model Christian-Muslim Dialogue", Paramadina Vol. I, 1998, p. 18.
[6] Robert N. Bellah, Beyond Beliefe: Reinventing Religion (essays about Aga-ma in the Modern World) (New York: Paramadina, 2000), h.204.
[7] Ashgar Ali Engineer, Islam and Liberation, trans. Salim Hairus HS (New York: LKiS, 1993), p.5.
[8] QS 49:13
[9] QS 30:22.
[10] Q.S Al-hujurat/49: 13. see also Moses Asy'arie, Dialectics of Religion for Spiritual Liberation (New York: Lesfi, 2002), pp. 112.
[11] for example. M. Deden Ridwan, Theology Building Harmony, in Nurcholish Madjid et al, op.cit., H. 73.
[12] Nurcholish Madjid, Da'wah of Islam in Indonesia: Challenges of Post-Colonialism and Pe-Social change in the Plural Society, the HA Mukti Ali et al, Religion in Contemporary Society Meetings, (ed.) Imron Rasyidi (New York: Tiara Discourse Yogya, 1998), pp. 124.
[13] M. Quraish Shihab, grounding the Qur'an (London: Mizan, 1998), pp. 214.
[14] Sura 2:148.
[15] QS 11:118-119.
[16] QS 59:14.
[17] Nurcholish Madjid, Religious Freedom and Pluralism in Islam, in Comma-ruddin Hidayat and Ahmad Gaus AF (eds.), Passing Over: Crossing Boundaries of Religion (New York: Gra-media Press, 1998), h.184.
[18] QS 49:13
[19] QS 30:22
[20] QS 11:118-119
[21] QS 36:82
[22] Sura 5:48.
[23] QS 2:4
[24] Djam'annuri, "Islam and Religious Pluralism", ESENSIA VOL. I, NO. 1 (2002), pp. 4-5.
[25] See. Nurcholish Madjid, Islamic Civilization Religion (New York: Paramadina, 2000), h.62.
[26] Differences were apparent differences, for example in the Christian creed which consists of various constituents in the Christian faith. Christian creed commonly called the Apostles 'Creed (The Apostles' Creed) shows the difference in fundamentals between Islam and Christianity:)
I believe in God
The Father.
Makern Almighty of Heaven and Earth
And in Jesus Christ,
His only Son, our Lord.
Who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, Born of the Virgin Mary,
Suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified.
Dead? And burried, He descended into hell; The third day
He rose again from the dead.
He Ascended into heaven,
And sittetn on the right hand of God the Father Almighty;
From thence He Marshall come
To judge the quick and the dead
I believe in the Holy Ghost;
The Holy Catholic Church;
The Communion of saints;
The firgiveness of Sins;
The Ressurection of the body, and the life everlasting.
Quoted from Djam'annuri, op.cit., H. 16.
[27] Ibid., P.5.
[28] Nurcholish Madjid, Islamic Doctrine and Civilization: A Critical Review of the Faith, Humanity and Kemoderenan (New York: Paramadina, 2000), h.605.
[29] Sura 5:48
[30] Djam'annuri, op.cit., H.6
[31] Sura 2:256
[32] QS 18:29
[33] About the best of creation to see. Nurcholish Madjid, Dialogue of Religions in Perspective Universalism al-Islam, in Komaruddin Hidayat and Ahmad Gaus AF, op.cit., H. 9
[34] David Little., Cross-Cultural Study of Islam-West (London: Student Press, 1997), pp. 78.

[35] QS 33:40
[36] Sura 3:199
[37] QS 10:99
[38] Sura 2:62
[39] QS 16:108-109
[40] Djohan Effendi, Kemusliman and Pluralism, in Th.Sumartana et.el. (Editorial). Dialogue: Criticism and Religious Identity (New York: Student Press, 1994), h.50.
[41] QS 22:40
[42] Sura 2:62
[43] Robert N. Bellah, op.cit., H. 211.
[44] Ali Audah, Muhammad Ibn Abdullah: Foundress of the Social Reform, Nurcholish Madjid et al, op.cit., H. 413.
[45] QS al-Maidah / 5:82-85. Compare with EMQ / :113-115.
[46] Harold Coward, Pluralism: The Challenge for Religions, trans. Translation Team Pe-publishers (Yogyakarta; Kanisisus, 1989), pp. 95.
[47] Djohan Effendi, op.cit., H. 53.
[48] ​​Bernard Lewis, chaos Christian civilization, Islam and Judaism, trans. Primosophie (Yog-yakarta: IRCiSoD, 2001), pp. 28.
[49] Fazlur Rahman, Islam, Mohammad terj.Ahsin (New York: Library Publishers, 2000),
h. 24.
[50] Nurcholish Madjid, Islamic doctrine ...., Op.cit., H. 205.
[51] Fazlur Rahman, Principal themes of the Koran, trans. Anas Mahyuddin (New York: Library Publishers, 1996), pp. 235.
[52] Nurcholish Madjid, Islam Religion ..., op.cit., H. 59.
[53] See. Komaruddin Hidayat and Wahyuni ​​Nafis Muhammad, Religion of the Future: Perspectives Perennial Philosophy (New York: Paramadina, 1995), p.11
[54] QS 60:8
[55] Sura 2:256
[56] QS 18:29
[57] QS 22:40
[58] Sura 3:64
[59] Nurcholish Madjid, Islam Religion ..., h.59.
[60] Sura 2:143
[61] Sura 3:110
[62] Sura 9:38, 47:38

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