Universal aspect of the conversation rather than the religions as essentially metaphysical in the sense of actual, rather than philosophical. Characteristic of this supernatural metaphysics, without affordable freelance at all by the human mind is pure, but he merely based 'intelligent'. While the philosophy based on reason which is the basic capabilities of each human person. Intellectual ability is formulated Meister Eckhart, "in the soul there is something that is not created; .... is intellect ". A similar formula can be found in the understanding of Islamic esotericism: "Sufis (who memen-tingkan intellect) was not created".
Because knowledge of pure intellect is beyond the reach of the human person and the nature of adiindividual, universal, or divine, and because it is based on pure intelligence that directly and do not require discussion; knowledge is not only far beyond reasoning, but even far beyond the means of faith keepercayaan ordinary. Put differently, in particular intellectual knowledge is also beyond the theological point of view, which is much higher also from a philosophical point of view. Metaphysical certainty of this intellectual knowledge is absolute. [1]
Intellectual knowledge comes from God, just as metaphysical knowledge. But metaphysics is based entirely on the intellectual intuition of religion, it is based on revelation. To distinguish between the metaphysical and theological knowledge, we consider the empirical phenomena. Metaphysical knowledge which is also called esoteric, if expressed in religious symbols is the awareness of the nature of light that is colorless and about the character as a source of true light. Instead of a particular religious belief will declare the light was red and not green, while other religious beliefs would say otherwise. Both of these statements is true regarding both the extent to distinguish light from darkness, but it is not true if they perceive the same light with a certain color.
Schuon elementary examples described above are intended to show that the theological point of view would disrupt the symbol or form with the real truth which transcends the form. Therefore, the theological view is based on Revelation and not on knowledge that can be possessed (intellectual knowledge). In contrast to the theological view, metaphysics is able to reveal a symbol or shape as a whistleblower, while remaining aware of its relative. That is why every major religion that still retains the purity of the core teachings, can serve as a means of expression of every truth is known directly by the eyes of the intellect, the man who called esotericism of Islam as "the eyes of the heart". [2]


As mentioned earlier, religious or metaphysical universal truths translate into many languages ​​dogmatic. Therefore, although the intrinsic truth of the dogma can not be understood by everyone, he could be understood by faith. This is the only way possible for most people to participate in the divine truth. Knowledge of metaphysics as a universal truth has much broader coverage than the dogma, in the sense that it is seeping into the deepest core of dogma or intrinsic earlier. Namely, the truth is not infinite and tackle all forms, at once without conflict with the dogma itself. Can be added here, because the essence of the religions themselves contain and develop intellectual knowledge is passed on beyond the veil as a symbol of dogmatic and diverse ibadatnya as an element of particular religions. [3]
Universality of religions is reflected, for example, the concept of divinity, humanity, justice, and others. While aspects partikularnya (locality) typically is situational, ie depending on the circumstances of a society (people) who inhabit the region and a specific space. [4] Meanwhile, according to Ismail Raji al-Faruqi universal aspect of religion is a God or "natural religion" that possessed by all human beings. [5] Fritjhof Schuon (or Muhammad 'Isa Nur al-Din) in his work Islam and the Perennial Philosophy (1976), writes the sub-title' Form and Substance of Religions 'which can translate each of the two terms' form and 'substance' was to the universal and particular aspects of religions. According to Schuon, so that a religion is intrinsically be considered orthodox, orthodoxy while ektrinsik depending on certain formal elements that can not be applied literally outside perspective, it must be fully supported by an adequate doctrine of the Absolute. [6]
Every religion has a particular form and one universal substance. The substance of this universal religion that has rights that are not limited to, because he was basically born and come from the Absolute, while the particular form of religion than is relative and therefore limited their rights. [7] On the inside, the esoteric , or in terms of substance, the statements made by a religion is absolute. Only, outside, or exoteric, namely in terms of the particular and entirely on the level of human possibilities, these statements are relative, if metaphysics is considered not enough to prove this, the facts themselves will prove it. [8] Thus each form is limited and every religion on the outside is a particular form, while the absolute-universal nature of its intrinsic essence and only in the supra-formal only.
The next aspect of universal religion, as in the perspective of perennial philosophy, understood at once transcendent but also immanent in nature. He is transcendent because it is difficult to define and is not affordable 'at all' except through prediketnya. However, he is also immanent, because the real substance of the relationship between prediket and universal aspects of religion can not be separated. If only the universal aspects of this religion can be a hierarchy, then the universal aspect is just one of the most primordial. He is ferennial, without limitation because it is emitted from the Absolute. Like water, keuniversalannya is one but its presence may take the form of oceans, the vapor, clouds, rain, rivers, ponds and so forth. [9]
When the universal aspect of religion is present in more limited form, then surely religion in at the same time is universal and the particular well. In this context, perhaps Schuon can say that, "Every religion memilikisatu form (the particular) and one substance (universal)". Form of religion is relative and particular, but it contains substantial content of the universal. Because religion in it is a combination of aspects of the universal with the partikulatnya, religion then becomes absolute as well as relative. [10]
Christian theologian Hans Kung from Tubingen, Germany, describes the universal aspect of the Abrahamic religions-Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, the 'point' of God. God in four aspects, namely: first, faith in the one and only God, the God who gives meaning and life to all things. Second, faith in "Lord of History ', a God who acts as God the Creator of the world and man in history, the one God. He is a transcendent God but also in the same time immanent. Third, although the unseen God, is a partner who can be approached. Fourth, belief in God is gracious and friendly, which keeps the human God. The Arabic word ar-rahman, "the Merciful", etymologically related to the language of the Hebrew (the Jews), Rahamim. [11]
Another Muslim scholar, Seyyed Hossein Nasr, a famous perenialis like Fritjhof Schuon, has a work in its original title of Knowledge and the Sacred 'shows his reputation as an expert in the study of religions from the standpoint of perennials. One sub-headings in the book, 'Desakralisasikan Knowledge', a representation of universal and particular aspects of the discussion rather than religions.
Universal aspects of religion which is also the meeting point of religions, which is discussed here is authentic transcendental equation that can beyond any outward form and manifestation, and will never perish due to changes in space and time. Whereas, the transcendental equation still looking at the form of any religion as a particular privilege to be respected and therefore the plurality of religions is in line with the divine will that have a future as far as these religions have spiritual derivative of the Absolute. [12] That is, metaphysical reality or metaphysical truths that are the foundation of all religious teachings that truth is eternal. [13]
Intelligence as an instrument of human knowledge, Nasr writes, is a blessing to know the Absolute. Intelligence or intellect is like the light that emanates from and returns to the Absolute before, and serves as the best evidence about the reality of the absolute and unlimited. Namely, the Absolute Reality which is the purity, the pure immanent Subject, and Object Transcendent, Infinite Self and Absolute Being that is not entered in the Rear Being. [14] Therefore it is more than defining human beings as 'rational animal' so clear-Nasr, one can define the human in a way that more principals as being endowed with a full intelligence, centered on the Absolute and the Absolute created to know that. To be human is to know and also exceed themselves, captures scientia sacra. [15] The foundation of the teachings of the religions, consequently, which is the background and purpose of faith, sapiensial perspective view knowledge as a relationship that ultimately the Divine Intellect. [16]
[] [] []

In Hinduism, the Vedas and Vedanta is derived from the vid, it means 'vision' and 'knowledge', is connected with the Latin videre, 'see', and Greek oida, 'knowing'. Upanishads which is the soul of primordial human drive toward the Absolute, it literally means 'standing near'. The heart is a tradition in this Hiduisme high knowledge (Jnana) which is divine. [17] Buddhism, like Hinduism, emphasizing the glory of knowledge as a support and "chair" for high knowledge. [18]
Hokhmah meaning or wisdom in Judaism explicitly show a right action rather than knowledge. In Genesis (3:22) knowledge is considered as God's own essential nature, and the wisdom writings emphasize the worship of "God the All-Wise". Jews also believe that the Torah itself is a manifestation wisdom earlier. The tendency to blend with the One is the will and desire naturally, and the fundamental nature of the ability Hokhmah is found in the soul.
The testament laa ilaha illa L faith was the religion of Islam is related to the knowledge, contains the quintessence of metaphysical knowledge relating to the principles and manifestations. The names of the sacred texts of Islam, all related to knowledge; al-Quran 'readings', al-Furqan, and umm al-kitab. The Quran itself refers to practical use in every letter to concerned inteleksi and knowledge. First verses revealed associated with reading (iqra '), implies the knowledge and science. In Islam there is the highest knowledge (al-ma'rifah or 'irfan) which is a unitif knowledge about God. Therefore bijaksanawan called al-Sufi'arif billah, "gnostics who know through or with God". The Arabic word intellect (al-'aql) which indicates the precious gift of God preacher, once actualized by the revelation, the meaning of the most important gain access Purity, truth, intelligence itself is a characteristic of the sacred peak. [19]
Christianity is a major concern Seyyed Hossein Nasr in this study through a review of the characters. Early Christians looked at 'Sophia' is almost beside the "divine beings", a contemplation of the Trinity. Sophia is presented in view of the saints and transmitted through knowledge. In Christian teachings, Christ is identified with the Universal Intellect, which the Lord God also placed on the center of the cosmos and in human hearts. Drift toward the center of the Universal Intellect, as revealed by Origen (185-254 AD) is a text (Scripture) Sacred. The presence of the Logos as the 'eyes of the heart' and the roots of human intelligence, enabling the human gripping the inner meaning of Scripture and the illuminated manuscript of knowledge, as scientia sacra earlier. [20]
Scotus Erigena, a Christian Saleh, her heart is a philosophy of authentic Christianity, "the true religion is true philosophy". According to Erigena, a perfect human being and attempt to reach the sacred knowledge, as the final and the final goal of perfection, that all these causes come from God, theosis. Scientia as the highest object is transformed into the Sapientia, so the human soul enlightened by God. [21]

Through the 'datum'
One man can reach the
Scientia / theosis

Dimensions intellect

The many / Sapientia

Meister Eckhart, the greatest strength and majestic expression of Christian gnosis in the medieval period. For him, the intellectual roots are in the 'altar of the Divine'. Intellect is increatus et increabilis; in which God is the first intelligere. The eyes of none other than the supernal intellect or intelligence connecting the human with the purity, in a sacramental way of intelligence. [22]

A kar I ntelek Lord Divine Altar
Sciencia sacra = Intelligere

Eyes = Intellect
Intellect-Increatus Su et increbilis
Pernal Intele-

Nicholas of Cusa (1401-1464), Jacob Boehma (1575-1624), is among the medieval Christian gnosis fully appreciate the teachings purely sapiensial. All of them close to the form and content of Sufi literature that is based on the central theme of returning to God through knowledge, or intellect, or, intelligence. Road roamer (rihlah) This is the path of knowledge, namely al-ma'rifah (in Islam) or Jnana in Hinduism. The discovery of the Absolute through knowledge that nothing is sacred wisdom. [23] Their knowledge, Nasr said, is always buried with sacred qualities. [24]

In the end, of course, the outward and intentional contradictions of speculative formulation as a particular element by itself would seem not only in a single formulation, but also even more powerful reason more logically in the formulation in itself is homogeneous among the different formulations .
Single formulation of the above are often even paradoxical as the revelation of a yogi in the Vedas; Brahmasmi Aham (I am the Buddha), or the phrase 'Ana al-Haqq' of al-Hallaj, or confession of the divinity of Jesus Him. [25]

I Asker
Thank you for taking the time given to me. Just now I heard the speakers you describe universal and particular aspects of it like a flashlight beam that can radiate in all directions. Lampo Centre flashlight is universal, while the rays are emitted and illuminate particular. Well, what about the revelation if the later was said also that the 'intellect' as metaphysical knowledge can immediately know the Lord. Thus, the revelation of where?
Questioner II
What is the universal aspect of religion that concrete?
Questioner III
I think religion can not only be based on knowledge of the intellect / metaphysics / ma'rifat course, the reality is often distorted?
IV Asker
If there had been pendangan theologically in metaphysical knowledge, how about Buddhism that I know of no revelation?
Questioner V
I am still confused about the universal and particular aspects of religion?

Response speakers (By: Roni Ismail)
To date I still hold the belief that achieving universal aspect that still has to go through the particular, Why? In the writings AM Hardjana 'Authentic Religion and Not Authentic "no discussion of religion functions as a motive to seek the Lord in genuine and kontinou. And indeed the only religion that provides the tools to get to the Universal. The device was in my opinion yes ... the revelation that was. Even if we use the paradigm of diversity one having religion, being religious and being inter-religious, it seems if having religion remains the primary basis for understanding religion and universal substantially (being inter-religious). So, I think the revelations continue to play perannannya there, precisely in order to find the Universal is correct and not heterodox.
This fact at once to answer the second questioner that it searches The Universal without a particular vehicle is often not understood common people. There wihdatul form, hulul, pantheism, if in the context of Islam for example. Thus, the revelation of the above is actually a 'penggiring' to the Universal correctly.
Kemudain third questioner, I think and I believe every religion has a 'revelation', but may differ in terms of terminology. Including Buddhism. Please mas questioner read Huston Smith's book 'The World's Religions' that the inspiration of the Buddha as an ascetic who believed that his followers as 'revelation' that. So there is a revelation, even why there are scriptures that's not out of belief in revelation as well.
Just confirms it for the fifth and final questioner, because it had been answered. If drawn between universal and particular aspects of it, to borrow a description Schuon, such as this,

Universal aspects (eg, God [The One])



Buddhist Christian Islamic Jewish and other
God Yahweh Christ? ?

Particular aspect

Thus some responses from me as the speakers, of course, you do not feel satisfied and not be satisfied. Please look for more in-depth answers and there will you find the answer. Thank you.


Al-Faruqi, Ismail Raji. Islam and Other Religions. In Altaf Gauhar (ed.). The Challenge of Islam. New York: Library Publishers, 1982.

Hidayat, Komaruddin and Wahyuni ​​Nafis Muhammad. Religion of the Future: Perspectives Perennial Philosophy. London: Paramadina, 1995.

Karim, M. Rusli. Religion, Modernization, and Secularization. Yogyakarta: Yogyakarta Tiara Discourse, 1994.

Kung, Hans. 'A Model Christian-Muslim Dialogue', Paramadina, Vol. I, No.. 1, July-December 1998.

Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. Knowledge and Purity. Trans. Suharsono et al. Yogyakarta: Student Reader, 1997.

Schuon, Fritjhof. Looking for a rally point Religions. Trans. Safroedin Bahar. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia, 1994.
----------. Islam and the perennial philosophy. Trans. Rahmani Astuti. London: Mizan, cet. iv., 1998.

[1] Fritjhof Schuon, Looking for a rally point of Religions, trans. Safroedin Bahar (New York: Obor Indonesia, 1994), pp. xxxi.
[2] Ibid., H. xxxii-iii.

[3] Ibid., H. xxx.

[4] Quoted from M. Kareem Rush, Religion, Modernization and Secularization (London: Tiara Discourse Yogya, 1994), pp. 104.

[5] See Ismail Raji al-Faruqi, Islam and Other Religions, in Altaf Gauhar (ed.), The Challenge of Islam (New York: Library Publishers, 1982), pp. 90.

[6] Frithjof Schuon, Islam and the perennial philosophy, trans. Rahmani Astuti (New York: Mizan, cet. Iv., 1998), pp. 25.

[7] Ibid ..

[8] Ibid., H. 27.

[9] See. Komaruddin Hidayat and Wahyuni ​​Nafis Muhammad, Religion of the Future: Perspectives Perennial Philosophy (New York: Paramadina, 1995), pp. 53.

[10] Frithjof Schuon, loc.cit ..

[11] See Hans Kung, "A Model Christian-Muslim Dialogue ', Paramadina, Vol. I, No.. 1, July-December 1998, p. 20-21.

[12] and Muhammad Hidayat Komaruddin Wahyuni ​​Nafis, op.cit., H. 11.

[13] Ibid., H. 8.

[14] Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Knowledge and Purity, trans. Suharsono et.al. (London: Student Reader, 1997, p. 3.

[15] Ibid., H. 4.

[16] Ibid., H. 7.

[17] Ibid.

[18] Ibid., H. 8.
[19] Ibid., H. 10-13.

[20] Ibid., H. 19.

[21] Ibid., H. 23.
[22] Ibid., H. 25.

[23] Ibid., H. 31.

[24] Ibid., H. 35.

[25] Fritjhof Schuon, Looking for a rally point Religions, p. 4.


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